COVID at colleges and universities

Though we have already discussed COVID and the reopening of schools, universities and colleges have a unique set of challenges regarding COVID. Universities and colleges generally have housing where students live close to one another, whether in dorms or in shared on- or off-campus apartments. Commuter universities and colleges (like Cal State LA and most community colleges in the area) have many students in classrooms where social distancing often isn’t possible. There are multiple groups of students using a classroom during a particular day, increasing the odds of COVID exposure between groups.Despite these risks, some colleges and universities have reopened. Some colleges and universities that started with in-person classes have switched to online courses. Others offer a hybrid format, where students participate in class from the classroom or virtually at the same time. Chancellor White, the leader of the CSU system, canceled almost all in-person classes for Fall 2020 and Spring 2021.
Countless articles have been written on this topic from all sides of the discussion. If you have friends or family at different colleges and universities, you are welcome to ask them about their experiences and discuss that in your discussion posts.

Purpose
To demonstrate that you have read about this week’s topic and are prepared to discuss.

Tasks
You will need 2 articles for this assignment.

IN HALF A PAGE:
For each article:
Provide a citation in APA format. Follow APA format for articles, either magazine, newspaper, or journal article, by using the format provided here (<link is hidden> Other citation formats will result in lost points.
In 1-2 sentences, provide a summary of the article’s main thesis or position on the issue.
Write 2 facts or arguments from this article that you might use when discussing this topic. Write in your own words (paraphrase). Do not cut and paste from the article!

OTHER HALF OF THE PAGE: Goals and objectives
Goals
A goal is a broad statement of a desired future outcome. Qualities of a goal statement:

It is the big reason (the raison d’être) behind your project: to solve the problem for your community.
It does not contain specifics. Tell us what the goal is, not who, where, or how you will accomplish this goal.
Examples of goal statements:

Increase the number of children entering kindergarten with all vaccinations
Reduce the rate of violence in schools
Reduce the rate of unintentional injuries
Increase knowledge about HIV among adolescents.
Objectives
An objective is a defined result of a specific activity to be achieved in a finite period of time by a specified person or number of people. Objectives are best when they are SMART. These are the qualities of a SMART objective:

Specific (who, what change, how much, where, when). Include details based on what you plan to do.
Measurable/observable. You need to be able to use data to check whether the objective has been met.
Appropriate/achievable. It should be something that is actually reasonable to accomplish.
Realistic. It should fit the staff, budget, and resources of the project.
Time-based. It should be something you can do within the timeline of the project and the dates of completion (or spans of time indicated) should be clear.
Writing objectives
To write a SMART objective, include information for the following questions:

When will the program take place?
Who are the participants in the program?
Where will the program occur?
What do you intend to cause or change? (Behavior, knowledge, policy, etc.)
How much change will you see?
For example: By 8:00 PM (when), my family (who) will have eaten dinner at the dining room table (where) and all family members (how much) will report that they are satisfied with the food I prepared (what).

Figuring out the “how much”
Before you can figure out how far you’ve gone you need to know where you started. To write an objective about change in behavior, health, or knowledge, you need to know what the current statistics are for this group. If baseline data is available (and represents your population well) then you can use that as a starting point.

You can also read research articles about similar projects or populations and use their statistics as a starting point, or as an idea of how much change others have seen.

Keep your specific population in mind: does your population want to change? Are they interested in changing? How easy or difficult will it be for them to change? These questions will help you think about how much change is realistic.

Types of objectives
Here are examples of types of objectives someone could use when proposing a project. Usually, there are several objectives presented for one project. Examples of each type are presented below.

Health objectives: changes in health status (blood pressure, disease status, etc.)
Educational objectives: knowledge attained by study participants.
Behavioral objectives: new behaviors started or stopped, increased or decreased (smoke less, start doing yoga weekly, etc.)
Policy objectives: implement or change a policy or law
Process objectives: milestones that ensure the project is on track.
Examples of Educational Objectives
By the end of the program (June 1, 2007), 90% of students enrolled in the program will list 3 modes of HIV transmission.
At the conclusion of the program (July 15, 2007), 80% of students in the school nutrition program will be able to list at least 7 healthy food items.
The proportion of participants in the smoking cessation program who identify at least 5 negative factors associated with smoking will increase from a baseline of 85% to a post-measure of 95%.
Examples of Policy Objectives
By June 30th, 2021, Los Angeles County will adopt a policy prohibiting the use of cell phones (including hands-free) while driving.
By June 30th, 2021, at least 5 single resident occupancy hotels in Oakland will adopt policies designating 50% of the individual rooms as smoke-free and prohibiting smoking in all indoor common areas.
Examples of Process Objectives
By the end of month 1, we will have recruited 5 schools to participate in a high school-based violence prevention program.
By the end of month 7, 90% of the program staff will have completed all 6 90-minute sessions of the violence prevention training program.
By June 25th, 2021, the prevalence of substance abuse prevention instruction by 9th-12th grade teachers will increase from 65% (6/05 level) to 90% in the 2021-2022 school year.
For more information and more examples, check out this page from the Minnesota Department of Health (<link is hidden> />
Purpose
To gain experience writing a project goal and SMART objectives.

Tasks
Think about your problem and how you’re now going to address it. If you are successful, what things will be different? Jot down the changes you’ll see. Use those to write:

1. One (1) project goal: If your project is successful, what changes (in general) will you see? Think big picture here, no details.

2. Three (3) SMART objectives: If your project is successful, what changes will you see? Be specific and use the SMART objective formula: include who, what, by when, where, and by how much.


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